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Winds of change: What the construction industry can do now
  Existing New build Annual cost of no action
Roofs Replace loose tiles Choose fixings for 5-10% higher wind loads Gales: £1-2bn; fixings: £2.5-2.7bn
Windows Maintain well, use good-quality replacements Choose materials with good UV resistance and water tightness Not specifying PVCu windows, £2.4bn
Masonry Render if suffering from rain penetration Use good building practice for lightweight blockwork to avoid cracking
Concrete Inspect regularly for corrosion of reinforcement Choose formulation and reinforcement assuming higher rainfall and CO2
Driving rain Render if needed Design for higher levels of climactic exposure
Foundations Underpin or repair subsidence damage Increase foundation depth on susceptible clay soils by 0.5 m £200-400m
Flooding Improve defences if possible, review consequences Avoid floodplains if possible. Raise floor levels, avoid underfloor wiring £200m
Coastal erosion Manage retreat if possible Do not build on vulnerable areas £10-30bn of risk (not annual)
Water Recycle used water or collect rainwater for gardens Consider water resources when planning developments. Water companies to plan for climate change in southern England
Ventilation Raise temperature to dispel damp Plan for good natural ventilation where air pollution and personal security allows, especially in the south in autumn. Consider mechanical ventilation only as last resort
Heating/cooling If necessary, use some of the anticipated 12-19% saving in heating energy to improve comfort and reduce damp Design new buildings to minimise the need for air-conditioning