The head of each unit will report directly to Richard Deacon, the division's managing director.
Deacon said the structure would give Atkins the flexibility it needed to meet its customers' needs.
He said: "It is a key step in our quest to become the preferred supplier of highways and transport services in the UK."
The move is part of chief executive Robin Southwell's plan to group Atkins' activities into 15 operating businesses.
The new division is called WS Atkins Highways and Transportation. It employs more than 3000 staff, making it one of Europe's largest multidisciplinary transport consultancies.