The remaining three weak spots in Dutch coastal defences are to be patched up, in a series of deals aimed at providing long-term safety for the famously flat landscape.

The weak spots are the final three of 10 that were discovered during a wide-ranging investigation in 2003.

Arcadis, the parent of UK consultant AYH, will tackle the weak spots on behalf of two different Dutch authorities, in a deal worth around £1m.

The water board of the Rijnland sought the advice of Arcadis with regard to strengthening the coast at Katwijk. The primary dyke is ring dyke through the old village of Katwijk aan Zee and needs to be strengthened in order to ensure the security of the province of Zuid-Holland.

Arcadis will produce a starting document as well as a project note and environmental impact assessment (EIA) on behalf of the client. It will do likewise in the region Hollands Noorderkwartier, where narrow dunes that no longer meet safety requirements still provide protection.

Finally, the sea wall at Hondbossche and Pettemer needs strengthening. The sea wall is surrounded by nature reserves, which will need to be maintained as part of the project.

“In our country, the question of coastal protection is a matter of life and death,” said Douwe Kras, managin director of Arcadis in the Netherlands.