Lancashire-based EOM Construction and Balfour Beatty were listed at number seven and 13 respectively in a hall of shame compiled by the Environment Agency.
EOM Construction was fined £21 000 last year for illegally disposing of controlled waste on sites in Burnley and Colne. The Environment Agency said illegal tipping had saved the firm up to £180 000, and agency chief executive Ed Gallagher called for stiffer penalties.
Balfour Beatty was fined £15 500 for two incidents, including pollution of the River Derwent with diesel. It was also fined for depositing controlled waste without a waste management licence.
EOM was unavailable for comment. A Balfour Beatty spokesman said the company took an interest in the environmental impact of its projects it was involved in, and sought to preserve and enhance the environment.